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Buddhist inscriptions and chronicles and Tibetan sources also record a few tantric Buddhist deities, namely Akshobhya, Amitabha, Vajrayogini, Vajrabhairava, Usnisavijaya and Samantabhadra.
Strong influence from Animism resulted in belief in Buddhist deities such as the Pancaraksas.
Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire put up a pillar at Lumbini, the birthplace of the Buddha, in the second century BCE.
It is also believed that Ashoka went to Patan and had four stupas built there.
Many Buddhist groups are also influenced by Hinduism.
Buddhism is the dominant religion of the thinly populated northern areas, which are inhabited by Tibetan-related peoples, namely the Sherpa, Lopa, Manangi, Thakali, Lhomi, Dolpa and Nyimba.
Many ancient sites in the Kathmandu Valley were identified with major Buddhist Caityas, such as Swayambhu, Boudhanath, Kathmandu and the four "Ashoka" stupas of Patan, and another two hundred stone [Cetiya|Caityas] dating from the Licchavi Period, were testified to the widespread antiquity of [Cetiya|Caitya] worship.
It is possible that this practice, in its earliest incarnation, was related to the worship of stones, which may have originated in the early, rival Kirata inhabitants of the Valley, prior to the Licchavis.
Another Buddhist text, the Manjushrimula Kalpa, mentioned Manadeva as the King of Nepal Mandala.According to one of the earliest Licchavi inscriptions, Caitya worship ordinarily consisted of ritual circumambulation of the caitya and offering standard items such as incense, colored powder, oil lamps and ablutions.At times, the inscriptions indicate, it could even involve resurfacing an existing Caitya and covering the new surface with many elaborate paintings.In Nepal's hill and mountain regions Hinduism has absorbed Buddhist tenets to such an extent that in many cases they have shared deities as well as temples.For instance, the Muktinath Temple is sacred and a common house of worship for both Hindus and Buddhists.
Religious tolerance and syncretism were stressed during the Licchavi period.